"Apartheid—The Global Itinerary: South African Cultural Formations in Transnational Circulation, 1948-1990" traces the global diffusion of apartheid-era expressive culture, whether textual, musical or visual, in a Cold War setting. The apartheid government exiled political activists, intellectuals, writers, photographers and musicians. Texts depicting racial oppression circulated within transnational networks. Images were disseminated by the mass media. Sounds traveled, whether as the radio broadcasts of displaced writers or as the jazz performances of exiled musicians. Cultural mediation is integral to these outward itineraries. Through the lens of cultures of resistance to apartheid, Professor Louise Bethlehem and her research team seek to explain how South African political dissidents, writers, musicians, artists and photographers frame questions of social justice and racial equality for—and within—other global constituencies. 

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